Wednesday, July 31, 2019
A robot sniper is not subject to arm shake, fatigue, or any of the other human factors that throw off a riflemanÃ¢â¬â¢s aim, making each shot more accurate and less likely to hit someone other than the enemy. Pilotless drones are more likely to hit the target with better accuracy than bombs being dropped from a plane at 30,000 feet (Gyrnir). In the Army 53 percent of their casualties come with first contact with the enemy. Having a robot scouting ahead or flying above sending back pictures of the ground below to troops would reduce the casualties (Fogarty). Military robots can serve in place of human beings in explosive ordinance disposal (EOD), surveillance, and other dangerous situations. For example, when an EOD team was hunting for improvised explosive devices (IED), by the time the soldier was close enough to see the telltale wires from the bomb, it was too late. The IED erupted in a wave of flames. A soldier would have to be as far as 50 yards away to escape death and as far as half-mile away to escape injury from bomb fragments. Even if a person is not hit the pressure from the blast by itself can break bones. This soldier had been right on top of the bomb. As the flames and debris cleared, the rest of the team advanced. They found little remaining of their teammate. They loaded the remains onto a helicopter, which took them back to the teamÃ¢â¬â¢s base near Baghdad International Airport. That night the teamÃ¢â¬â¢s commander did his duty and wrote home about the incident. He apologized for his inability to change what had happened. He wrote, Ã¢â¬Å"at least when a robot dies, you donÃ¢â¬â¢t have to write a letter to its motherÃ¢â¬ (Singer). The Ã¢â¬Å"SoldierÃ¢â¬ was a 42-pound robot called a PackBot. The PackBot mounts all sorts of cameras and sensors, as well as an arm with four joints that extends over two meters to allow it to examine suspicious objects on EOD missions. If it werenÃ¢â¬â¢t for this robot to scout ahead the rest of the EOD team wouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t have survive the explosion (Singer). In conclusion, robotic technology is changing the future of warfare. Robots are used to save and protect, not harm innocent lives. The idea of robots replacing humans in the military is very unlikely. In order for a robot to do something it needs a human to program it and tell it what to do (Singer). Fully autonomous robots that may harm the wrong people presents ethical, legal, and command challenges determining who was responsible for the robotÃ¢â¬â¢s actions (the officer that put the robot into action and instructed it on its target or the company that manufactured the hardware) raises philosophical problems. Therefore, until these problems are resolved fully autonomous killing robots are unlikely (Gyrnir).
Tuesday, July 30, 2019
American wedding normally takes place in a church, where all guests gather. Ã¢â¬Å"Here comes the best man, flower girls, exchanging vows and rings, and the wedding music. The wedding ceremony is conducted by the priest. He formally asks the invitees whether they have any objection for this marriage and getting the positive response from the invitees, the priest asks the couple to exchange wedding rings and then the couple is marked as husband and wifeÃ¢â¬ . Furthermore, the priest and guests congratulate, embrace and kiss the just married.On the other hand, modern Americans often wish to arrange an unforgettable wedding and invite the priest to a location of their choice, some of them even insist on underwater wedding. Nevertheless, the vast majority of Americans the traditional style and arrangement in the place of worship. Indian wedding, conversely to American, usually takes place outdoors, under a canopy called a mandap. The couple sits on carpets under the mandap, and the par ties, invited by the couple, locate around this place. In addition, the priest, as opposed to American wedding asks neither the guestÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬ËblessingÃ¢â¬â¢ nor the brideÃ¢â¬â¢s and bridegroomÃ¢â¬â¢s consent.After being declared the couple as husband and wife, the couple exchange their rings and receive congratulations, moreover, their parents wash their feet in the special water with flower petals . Then, the man and the woman begin to invoke deities like Svaha, who is known as a marital happiness-giver and the priest announces the traditional long list of wishes, which include abundance, successful reproduction, friendship, harmony and happiness. The ideological background of American wedding refers rather to the Christian doctrine than to American culture.Due to the fact that the Bible obliges individuals to create families, the institute of marriage in viewed as sacred and blessed by God. Family in Christian religion is viewed as a self-sufficient entity, where, ho wever procreation must take place; this reminder is usually provided in the priestÃ¢â¬â¢s congratulations, addressed to the just married. On the contrary, the settings of Indian wedding ceremony suggest that family is first and foremost a natural phenomenon, thatÃ¢â¬â¢s why the brideÃ¢â¬â¢s and bridegroomÃ¢â¬â¢s compliances are even not questioned, Ã¢â¬â the deities (supernatural forces) have selected them as a prospective family.On the other hand, the two cultural traditions share common view on the meaning of the wedding ring as a symbol of unity and infinity of marital happiness. In America, the bride is supposed to wear a white dress and a veil, which should point to the fact that the broom hasnÃ¢â¬â¢t seen the brie before the wedding, so if he doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t like her, he will have an opportunity to refuse. The broom, in turn, is required to wear a black suit, alleged as his Ã¢â¬ËSunday bestÃ¢â¬â¢.As opposed to American wedding, in Indian ceremony, the bride and broom are expected to wear bright and rich colors Ã¢â¬â the woman should wear a red sari, draped around her head in order to underline her modesty. The man should have a kafni (long shirt, which reaches his knees) and pijamo (leggings) on. In addition, the groom is encouraged to wear a turban. In addition, the bride should put the national Indian decoration, known as mehndi, on her hands and feet . The only common aspect of both styles is the obligation to wear beautiful holiday clothes, which should not be put on again.As for the roles, the major roles in both Indian and American weddings are played by the bride, broom and the priest. Similarly, important roles are attributed to the manÃ¢â¬â¢s and womanÃ¢â¬â¢s parents and the groomÃ¢â¬â¢s best friend or brother (best man), who should accompany him in both traditions. Furthermore, in both cultures, the number of guests determines the happiness of marital life thus, both American and Indian couples seek to invite all relati ves from the brideÃ¢â¬â¢s and broomÃ¢â¬â¢s lines.In both Indian and American weddings flowers play central role, in terms of the scope of attributes employed. Indian couples are sprinkled with light flowers, as the plants are viewed as positive symbols, bringing about luck and harmony. American bride should have a bouquet in her hands and throw it behind her back once she participates in the ring exchange. However, in Indian weddings, money is valued, so the spot where the ceremony takes place is covered with coins.
Monday, July 29, 2019
SERVICE ENCOUNTERS - Essay Example Attendant: No, itÃ¢â¬â¢s okay. Customer: But honestly you look so great! Have a great day ahead! The first line Ã¢â¬Å"I received the exact amount, Sir. HereÃ¢â¬â¢s your changeÃ¢â¬ is an uptake because it leads the customer to express the following statement in the second line, Ã¢â¬Å"Thank you! You look so great todayÃ¢â¬ . This line leads the other person to engage in another statement in the conversation, which is found in the third line, Ã¢â¬Å"Thanks, but honestly IÃ¢â¬â¢m not feeling wellÃ¢â¬ . This statement leads to another reaction of the other party as stated in the fourth line, Ã¢â¬Å"You look fine and I think you donÃ¢â¬â¢t have a fever eitherÃ¢â¬ . This statement leads the other party to throw another line, Ã¢â¬Å"Yes, but itÃ¢â¬â¢s something personalÃ¢â¬ . This line leads the customer to say, Ã¢â¬Å"O! IÃ¢â¬â¢m sorry to remind you of thatÃ¢â¬ . The attendant responded in the next line, Ã¢â¬Å"No, itÃ¢â¬â¢s okayÃ¢â¬ . Then finally, the custom er closed the conversation with this line, Ã¢â¬Å"But honestly you look so great! Have a great day ahead!Ã¢â¬ . Clearly, there were effective lines that can be considered as uptakes because the two persons were able to involve themselves in the conversation way beyond the actual point they are supposed to perform in the scenario. Drug Store A young man, a Christian and in his late 20s after purchasing everything from a drug store started to initiate a conversation with the sales attendant who looks somewhere in her late 30s. This happened when there were only two customers left as the rest were just served and then they moved away. Customer: I havenÃ¢â¬â¢t seen you for a while. Did you take your vacation leave? Attendant: Yes. I just wanted to spend time with my kids. Customer: Wow. ThatÃ¢â¬â¢s great. How are they doing? Attendant: As usual, not doing great with their grades at school. TheyÃ¢â¬â¢re too preoccupied with computer games. Customer: O! IÃ¢â¬â¢m offering to you again my time. But this time IÃ¢â¬â¢ll employ some biblical principles when IÃ¢â¬â¢ll talk to them. Attendant: ThatÃ¢â¬â¢s a good offer, but IÃ¢â¬â¢ll see it first what else I can do. Customer: Just please inform me if you need some help. Attendant: Yes, I will. Thank you! The customer started in the first line, which is an uptake because it leads the attendant to respond to this statement, Ã¢â¬Å"I havenÃ¢â¬â¢t seen you for a while. Did you take your vacation leave?Ã¢â¬ This is a question statement that requires answer and so the attendant responded in this line, Ã¢â¬Å"Yes. I just wanted to spend time with my kidsÃ¢â¬ . This statement is of interest to the customer, as depicted through this line as a response, Ã¢â¬Å"Wow. ThatÃ¢â¬â¢s great. How are they doing?Ã¢â¬ Here is another question that requires answer from the attendant as showcased in this line, Ã¢â¬Å"As usual, not doing great with their grades at school. TheyÃ¢â¬â¢re too preoccupied with computer g ames.Ã¢â¬ In this response, we can depict that there must be an existing conversation like this that had taken place before as observed from the response of the customer, Ã¢â¬Å"O! IÃ¢â¬â¢m offering to you again my time. But this time IÃ¢â¬â¢ll employ some biblical principles when IÃ¢â¬â¢ll talk to themÃ¢â¬ . This is another offer, as we can observe from the response of the attendant, Ã¢â¬Å"ThatÃ¢â¬â¢s a good offer, but IÃ¢â¬â¢ll see it first what else I can do.Ã¢â¬ In this response, the customer did not want to make a closure, and so leaving this line Ã¢â¬Å"Just please inform me if you need some help.Ã¢â¬ The attendant responded and ended the conversation with this line, Ã¢â¬Å"
Sunday, July 28, 2019
Using Argument and Persuasion in Writng - Essay Example Even though this story was only the figment of writer Caspian Tredwell-Owens imagination. It is not something that is too far from the reality that we currently face in the fight to prevent the cloning of human beings. The proponents of Human Cloning do so in the name of science. Their stand being that by cloning humans, we will gain the much needed medical advantage and understanding of illnesses and easily be able to avert, cure, or create person specific vaccines for the recipients of Human Cloning technology. Although these supporters have sound and valid arguments, they fail to see that Human Clones are just as their name implies, human beings. Even though they are the final product of a highly complicated medical science, it does not erase the fact that these people shall, in the future, be born into this world as innocents. They will experience life and live their lives until some doctor tells them they can no longer live because their body parts are now needed. In other words, Human cloning turns their creators, the doctors and clone nurturers into gods. Having the power to give and take a life at their own convenience and hide the murder of another human being behind the cloak of medical science and technological advancement. Man was not created in a manner that he can be allowed by natural forces to live forever. Our bodies were not designed to be like car parts that can be replaced once it is worn down. Transplant technology is one thing. Such a technology is governed by rules and often comes from donors who are no longer part of this world. Such an argument cannot be used in support of human cloning. It is one thing to take a perfectly good body part from a person whom you know no longer has any use for it and another to harvest a body part from an exact genetic replica of a person in order to save his life. Think about it. What good is it to save the life of one if it means that another must die in order
Saturday, July 27, 2019
Diabetes - Essay Example Diabetes is a medical disease in which the human body can either not produce or not properly utilize the hormone called Insulin. Insulin itself is a naturally produced hormone which helps the body in converting sugars, starch and other food stuff into useful energy which is needed for the activities of daily life. While we know a lot about the effects of the disease, the cause of the ailment continues to be an unsolved mystery. However, both genetic and environmental influences have been noted to bring up the onset of diabetes and these include factors including obesity and a sedate lifestyle. The Diabetes UK (2008) organization also confirms the information provided by the ADA and gives further information regarding diabetes. According to the UK based charity, Diabetes is a condition where the the amount of sugar i.e. glucose in the blood is elevated abnormally since the body cannot use it properly. The glucose comes from the digestive system when starchy foods such as bread, rice, potatoes, chapatis, and plantain are consumed. High contents of glucose can also come from sugar or other sweet foods. The liver also produces glucose naturally within the body. Insulin is vital for life and it produced by the pancreas to help the glucose to enter the body cells where it can be used as fuel. Essentially, there are two types of diabetes known as Type 1 and Type 2. Of all the individuals affected by Diabetes, Type 1 is the less common type since it sets in when the body is completely unable to produce any insulin whatsoever. For those who are affected, this type of diabetes commonly appears before the person is forty.Ã Type 2 diabetes is more common and less easier to detect as well since in this situation, the body can still produce some insulin, but not enough for the cells to perform their function ideally. Type 2 diabetes can also set in when the insulin that is produced is not working correctly which is known as insulin resistance in the body. In many
Friday, July 26, 2019
Pollution - Essay Example This condition of remaining free of ice is highly dependent on the water currents and states of the weather. The Polar Bears usually favor such areas which enable them to hunt for seals in these spots of leads and makes use of the sea ice to be their podium (Sea World, Ã¢â¬Å"Distribution and HabitatÃ¢â¬ ). In the similarly context, polynyas are water areas which are bounded by ice all around the year because of tidal currents, winds and upwelling. These areas are considered to be significant as they serve as major food supplying and breeding regions for wintering marine mammals such as the Polar Bears. Few of the Polar Bears were learnt to chase the lower border of the floating sea ice throughout the year and makes widespread relocations according to the retreats and proceeds made by the ice (Sea World, Ã¢â¬Å"Distribution and HabitatÃ¢â¬ ). The population of the Polar Bears has been found to be declining at an alarming pace because of their disappearing habitat owing to global warming. The various reasons accounting for the alterations in the climate has resulted in speedy loss of ice in the Arctic sea. The ice in the Arctic sea was found to turn down by 7.7 percent every decade along with a turn down in the sea ice in the perennial sea region by 9.8 percent every decade. To add more to this problem, in few of the areas, a contraction of the ice in the Arctic sea was found to be 32 percent from the periods of 1960 and 1970 to 1990. This huge decline in the ice areas have resulted in jeopardizing their habitat of the Polar Bears which is posing to be a severe threat to their population (World Wildlife Fund, Ã¢â¬Å"Polar Bear: This icon of the North Is Losing Ground As Global Warming Melts its Sea Ice HabitatÃ¢â¬ ). Moreover, the ice is examined to melt quite before time in a year and is taking more time to develop owing to the alterations in the climate. This
VISUAL ANALYSIS PAPER - Essay Example Furthermore, the different levels of art form as a function of the influences that spurred such levels of development will be manifested through this analysis. The first such piece of art that will be discussed is the Heron Class Olla (c. 750 BCE) pictured first in Appendix to this assignment. This particular urn was used as a funerary vessel in which the ashes of the deceased would be placed. Contextually, this piece will also be the oldest which this analysis will consider; therefore, it represents Greek antiquity in a way that the other art pieces do not (Osbourne 278). This geometric period, of which this particular art piece is representative, was a time of cultural and political upheaval. Due to the fact that Mycenae had recently disintegrated, many elements of writing, masonry, as well as distinct elements of reading and writing were all but forgotten. Such a political upheaval meant that the representative art forms of this time would likely be highly simplistic in both desig n and function. This is evidenced in the fact that smooth lines and simple construction typifies this particular piece. Similarly, it should be noted that the art form that is exhibited in the form of birds is also highly simplistic and not indicative of a high degree of professionalism. Additionally, the function over form aspect of this particular piece is striking (Carpenter 81). Whereas later pieces exhibited variance in the way that the handles were created, formed, and utilized, this particular piece utilizes its handles in the most simplistic of ways. The handles are provided to the user at the area of greatest circumference due to the fact that this is the region that is most amenable to carrying the urn. In this way, the function over form aspects of this particular preliminary art form is duly exhibited. Likewise, as one might expect, such a preliminary art form did not handle as many motifs and various nuances that one has oftentimes come to expect within Greek pottery pa inting. At least in this case, this is a result of the fact that the art form was not highly developed and/or function took a primary position to form at such an early juncture. The secondary piece of artwork that this author has chosen to examine is that of Orientalizing Period - Skyphos (Drinking Vesel) c. 600 BCE. This vessel naturally represents the second distinct and recognizable phase of Greek pottery and art form in that the recognizable incorporation of previously Ã¢â¬Å"non-GreekÃ¢â¬ themes and motifs at first strikes the viewer as somewhat incongruous. Due to the fact that Greek trade and colonization within the Mediterranean had reached a new height during this period, the level of intercultural exchange as well as the introduction to new art forms, ways of thinking, new gods, and new trading partners served to highly vary the type and structure of Greek art form during this period. This cultural exchange can be specifically noted in the piece (referenced as exhibit 2 in the Appendix) by the fact that the pottery exhibits decidedly Assyrian and/or Egyptian influence with reference the displays which are etched into the pottery. Whereas the common interpretation of the Greek panoply is manifest in a host of different artistries, this incorporation of winged gods and goddesses is a definite departure from the traditional images of Zeus and
Thursday, July 25, 2019
Introduction of international financial reporting standards(IFRS) in Australia - Essay Example The IASC was established in the year 1973, at London, as an independent private-sector body. It sought to lay down comparable and harmonising standards for accounting, in the context of International Financial Transactions. These set standards were commonly termed under International Accounting Standards (IAS). The membership of the IASC involves about one hundred and forty three organisation in one hundred and four member countries. The main body that undertakes the formulation of a set standard for financial accounting, amongst the member nations, is the IASC Board, comprising sixteen member countries. In the year 2000, on May 20th, the member countries felt the need to renew the IASC structure and unanimously voted in support of the same. This new structure came into force on April 1st, 2001 and was termed the International Accounting Standards Board (IASB). The new structure comprises two distinct bodies within the IASB, namely, the Trustees and the Board. The trustees perform advisory functions and also raise funds. The Board on the other hand, performs the sole function of setting accounting standards. On the lines of the IAS as enforced by the IASC, the IASB has come up with the International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS), as the standards for accounting and financial reporting. Thus, the IFRS is the new standard for accounting and financial reporting, being adopted by the members of the European Union (EU) and other countries like Australia, China, etc. Reasons for its adoption in Australia Global markets have become integrated and extremely inter-dependent due to the increase in multilateral business ventures and investments. Thus, acknowledged and approved standards of accounting facilitate easy trading and also increase the trust factors amidst countries. Australia, too, is no exception to this growing globalisation and growth, since it cannot remain aloof from world activities. Therefore, it needs to adopt the same standards of accounting and financial reporting, as wet by major countries and international organisations. Here are some of the important reasons as to why Australia has adopted the International Financial Reporting Standards: Increased Transparency: IFRS facilitates increased transparency and clarity in global financial undertakings and accounting. Investors can carry forward and implement their investment plans in Australia, without fear of any risks. This would increase Australia's revenue, while also strengthening its multilateral relations. Greater Comparability: Since the IFRS are the global standards set by IASB, there is bound to be greater comparability between the financial reports of Australia, with other
Wednesday, July 24, 2019
An Analysis of Corporate Social Responsibility in UK Firms - Dissertation Example Other than the research design, studies need to provide an understanding of the research rationale, sample and sampling procedure, data and collection methods, as well as the data analysis process. The following chapter provides a deeper analysis of the methodology employed in conducting this study. Research Design Approach Research studies take the form of qualitative, quantitative, or both. Whereas quantitative designs use numerical data, qualitative designs use non-numerical data and information to make analysis towards achieving the aim of the study. In order to realise the objectives of this research, a combination of both qualitative and quantitative research approaches was employed. On the one hand, the study utilized available research data on the subject of CSR policy and performance among major corporations in the UK. In order to identify a sample space to draw information from, a recent research by HighflierÃ¢â¬â¢s Research (2011) on the Top 100 Graduate Employers in the UK for the year 2011 and 2012 was used. Secondary data and information regarding CSR in respect to UK firms provided a good foundation and basis for conducting a detailed analysis hence conclusions and recommendations. Apart from the use of secondary data especially the research study conducted by HighflierÃ¢â¬â¢s Research (2011), the study also collected additional information and data from the available literature that addresses the concepts and aspects of CSR with respect to UK firms. Such literatures formed the bigger part of the literature review section. Specific information obtained from the various literatures included the CSR policy frameworks as well as performance of UK firms in respect to the same strategic move. The literatures... The research selects three firms, Tesco, Asda and Sainsbury and uses them to represent the entire population. These firms are UK-based and of late have been seen as very successful in respect to CSR policies and performances. The sampling method that was used was the stratified sampling, which involves selecting specific firms that have heard significant impact, whether positive or negative, on the business environment on the basis of the topic under discussions. The three firms formed the case studies that needed to be analyzed in order to arrive at the conclusion. However, there were information and data required regarding the clientÃ¢â¬â¢s perception on the firmsÃ¢â¬â¢ CSR policies and performances. Again, it was difficult to conduct interviews on all the clients of the three firms. Consequently, 150 clients were selected randomly and a semi-structured interview was performed on them identifying firstly the firm of choice and then their views on the CSR policies as well as per formances. As much as we praise the importance of CSR practices to the organisation, the ultimate effectiveness of such practices is best felt by the public. It is true that interviewing senior corporate managers can serve good in understanding the environment underpinning their CSR policies. Nevertheless, this option is both resource consuming and might be subject to faked information as managers strive to safeguard their business secrets. On the other hand however, company clients are more open in airing their views on businesses and their practices
Tuesday, July 23, 2019
Accreditation of Healthcare Institutions Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words - 2
Accreditation of Healthcare Institutions - Essay Example Ã Health accreditation of institutions acts as a catalyst in improving and strengthening the quality and service provided to its beneficiaries. It also helps them be better prepared for new and reemerging old challenges (CDC, 2012). The accreditation helps measure the institution as to where its standards in terms of meeting its goals and can also act as a SWOT analysis of the institution itself. The institution can then work on its weaknesses. It also increases the accountability of health institutions towards its stakeholders (CDC, 2012). The accreditation process involves that the organization responsible for accreditation of healthcare institutions has to conduct some procedures in order to ensure compliance with standards and procedures. Each accrediting organization has its own set of procedures; however, normally the organization responsible for accrediting conducts a survey from the customers in order to see whether they are satisfied with the standard of care provided to them (Nicklin, 2011). This helps the organization in measuring whether the beneficiaries of the healthcare services are happy with the level of service they are getting. The organizations then themselves visit these healthcare institutions in order to check that the services, facilities, and procedures are in line with the standards and norms set by the regulating body (Nicklin, 2011). After making the analysis of the institutions, recommendations are made for improvement and compliance with the standards and regulations set by the regulating b ody. National Commission for Quality Assurance (NCQA) accreditation health care plan has been termed as a gold standard for improving healthcare services and facilities (NCQA, 2012).Ã Ã
Monday, July 22, 2019
Profile of Coca Cola Ghana Essay The Coca Cola Bottling Company was first established in 1886 by Dr. John Styth Pemberton in the United States of America (Atlanta) and has since been enjoyed in over 200 countries worldwide including Ghana who started its operations in 1995. The company believes that to be successful in the changing world we need to continue to thrive as a business over the next twenty years and beyond, we must get ready for tomorrow today thats what our 2020 vision is all about. Our Mission To refresh the world To inspire moments of optimism and happiness To create value and make a difference Our vision We serve as the frame work for our roadmap and guide every aspect of our business by describing what we need to accomplish in order to continue achieving sustainable, quality growth. People: be a great place to work where people are inspired to be the best they can be. Portfolio: Bring to the world a portfolio of quality beverage brands that anticipate and satisfy peoples desires and needs. Partners: Nurture a winning network of customers and suppliers, together we create mutual and enduring values. Planet: be a responsible citizen that makes a difference by helping build and support sustainable communities. Profit: Maximize long-term return to shareholders while being mindful of our overall responsibilities Productivity: Be a highly effective, lean and fast-moving organization. OBJECTIVES Increase sales by 100% by the end of 1st year. To be able to cover the whole country by the end of 2nd year. in non alcoholic beverage in future.
The Plc Controlled Systems This document has been created to give an overview of what PLC Systems are and why we use them in modern day life. By writing this report I hope to give a good understanding of what I know about PLC Systems. I will start with a short history of PLCs showing how they first started off to what we currently use today including the different design types. History of PLCs A PLC is a Programmable Logic Controller. It is a digital device that is used to control electromechanical systems/processes. They were designed in mind of replacing systems that are controlled by relays. Up until the late 60s automation in factories would use sometimes thousands of relays and cam timers to achieve simple tasks. This was very expensive and took up a lot of space. The expense was seen when the relays had to be changed, in a situation were all the relays had to be updated and changed, an electrician would be required to individually re-wire each relay resulting in very high labour time. Digital computers started to be used in a lot of industries to control processes but were far from perfect. The computer would have to meet very strict requirements that were not yet popular. These requirements would consist of specialist programmers that at this time would be an expensive asset. The computer would have to be protected to withstand the environments in which it was being used. The computer would process bit-form input and output in order to control everything. At this stage an operator would be needed to monitor the system to keep everything in check. PLC systems were first invented on request from an automotive industry; General Motors. They required a system that could replace the existing relay driven system. A proposal was accepted from Bedford Associates who later went on to producing the first Programmable Logic Controller. The image below shows the PLC 084 (name given to it by Bedford Associates as it was their 84th project. The unit stayed in service for almost 20 years. As shown in the photo, PLCs were very large. Over the years PLCs have greatly reduced in size as well as their performance has greatly increased. There are now also a few different types of PLCs that have been designed and used over the years. The main types of PLCs are Unitary, Modular and Rack Mounted. PLC Design Types Unitary Unitary PLCs are the simplest form of a Programmable Logic Controller. These controllers are single compact units that have all the components including the processor, inputs and outputs built in to one housing. Having all components built in to one sealed unit means there is no room for expansion so you are restricted to the amount of input and outputs the unit has. On the other hand it does mean a small unit is produced allowing it to be used in many everyday applications such as washing machines. The photo below (obtained from google images) shows some examples of unitary PLCs. these small units would be mounted directly to the application it is controlling. The downfall to unitary controllers is that youre limited to the constraints of the controller for example if a controller is built with 8 inputs and 7 outputs, that is all that controller will ever do. Modular Modular PLCs are built up of a number of different modules. These modules are linked together allowing for the controller to be customised to suit the requirements. All the core functions such as the computer processor, inputs and power regulation are usually contained in the base module. Other modules are then added on as expansions of inputs and outputs and analog to digital signal converters. This type of program is perfect for a system that may need to expand in the future, unlike the Unitary type design, this type is thought of as a more future proof design. That being said a Modular design controller doesnt have and infinite amount of expansion, there will only be room for a certain amount of expansion. Rack Mounted Rack Mounting PLCs are the best design for large scale use. They work in a very similar way to the Modular type of PLC where extra modules can be added for expansion only much more expansion is available. Where as the Modular design has all its main functions under one base module and expansion modules are added directly to it; a Rack Mounting PLC keeps all of the modules in organised racks and uses a network to connect them meaning that each module is separate from one another. Using this type or system allows us to expand on a much larger scale without things getting overly complicated. This design still allows for a very neat system that allows you to remove and add modules as required without doing any harm to the system. This is a modern approach that uses networking the same as many departments in a business today e.g. Computer networking. Using this design of PLC pretty much future proofs your setup for expanding as the amount of expansion is pretty much endless by adding more and more racks of modules to the network. The image above is an example of a Rack Mounting PLC (image obtained from google images). Input and Output Devices There are many different input and output devices that can be used with a Programmable Logic Controller. The PLC is responsible for processing all of the input and output devices connected. Inputs are normally some sort of sensor or switch that feeds back to the PLC and allows the PLC to monitor and use the data to signal and operate the relevant output. An output is the process that the PLC is essentially controlling. Some examples of the different types of inputs and outputs are below. Mechanical Switches Mechanical switches are a very popular form of input used with PLCs. The PLC will monitor the switch and wait for a signal to be sent from the switch. Switches normally operate in two ways; normally open or normally closed. With a normally open switch a signal is sent to the switch but doesnt return (reach the PLC) due to an open circuit. When the switch is made (pressed) the circuit is closed and a signal returns (reaches the PLC), from this the PLC can process the data and process the relevant program. A normally closed switch operates in the opposite way where a signal is constantly being received by the PLC and when the switch is made, the circuit is made and the PLC no longer receives the signal, from this is processes the relevant program. A typical example of a mechanical switch would be the type that would be found at the start and end of a pneumatic piston that is pressed by the piston itself when the piston reaches the relevant stroke, these are called limit switches. Non-mechanical Digital Sources Non mechanical digital resources refers to sensor inputs that dont require a direct mechanical operation to operate like the mechanical switch. Non-mechanical switches are far more complicated than mechanical switches and have no moving parts. They are also much faster than mechanical switches which is why they are used for computing. An example of a non-mechanical switch is a transistor. Transistors work by adding an electrical charge to close the switch and allow the flow of current, when the electrical charge is removed, the switch is open and the current can no longer flow. The switch uses silicone mixed with other elements as a semiconductor and when an electrical charge is added, it becomes conductive allowing the flow of current. So the change in state would be the electrical charge that operates the transistor and the flow of current would be the signal to the PLC. Optical sensors are another form of non-mechanical source. They work by sending out an optical signal to a reflector. When the signal is interrupted the PLC will process and preform an action. Optical sources now use Infrared as opposed to the old systems using the normal light spectrum so that natural light sources dont interfere. Transducers Transducers are a common form of sensor typically used as a measuring device. A transducer is a device that converts one form of energy into another (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Transducer). They typically convert a mechanical energy in to an electrical energy, an electrical energy that can be used to report to the PLC. Outputs There are a very wide selection of items that can be used as an output for PLC systems such as; relays, lights, sirens, motor starters, solenoids, etc. These are all classed as what the PLC is essentially controlling. The PLC would use the information fed back to it from the inputs, execute a program and activate the output accordingly an example of this could be a thermostat and air conditioning unit, the thermostat being the input to the PLC allowing the PLC to know when a preset temperature has been reached. When the temperature raises above the preset temperature required, the thermostat will send the signal to the PLC (as described in section 6), the PLC will process the signal and send a signal to the output which in this case would likely be a relay that when activated boots up the air conditioning unit. When the required temperature is reached the PLC will process and signal the relay to switch, turning the A/C unit off. Communication Links Automation using PLC systems use networking. Networking is used for devices to communicate with each other and can come in many different forms and can be broken down in to different sections such as; Remote I/O, peer to peer, host computer communications and LAN (local area network). Remote I/O is a system that has the inputs and outputs at a distance away from the PLC. This system allows a PLC to control a variety of both digital and analog points to be controlled eliminating the need for a controller at each point and resulting in a cost effective set up. The I/O configuration can connect the PLC to all sorts of plant equipment to monitor things such as cycle counts and times. Each I/O device is related to as a slave for the ones directly on the machine and the master controller that all the slave I/Os report back to. The master PLC will send a signal to the slave I/Os and which it then receives a response, the PLC then uses this response to trigger the relevant program that it then signals the remote I/O to change its outputs to suit. These signals are sent extremely fast and cycle hundreds of times per second. Peer to peer networks work slightly differently in the way that they are connected, using multiple PLCs. This type of network will connect each PLC in sequence to each other and is sometimes known as a daisy chain. This system is very clever in the way it works keeping all the PLCs in the network, up to date allowing all the PLCs to control their systems with the knowledge of what is happening in all the other systems. This allows for similar programming due to having to only program each controller to operate its designated system. This type of networking allows for a safe working system that when set up and programmed correctly means everything will flow and work in sync far quicker than that a human could process. Unlike remote I/O, this system does not require a master PLC as they all just use each others data, however sometimes they are used as a centre control point. Host computer communications connects the PLCs on a network to a computer. Most PLCs regardless of size can normally be connected to a computer. This allows for programs to be written in ladder logic form. Ladder logic form is the programming type that is quite popular in modern programming. It allows for a sort of pectoral type of programming that personally I find easier to understand. The ladder program can be written, edited and tested (virtually) via a computer and then downloaded on to the PLC. Other forms of intelligent devices can also be used with PLC systems to receive data for monitoring purposes. Internal Architecture The internal architecture is made up of the CPU, storage devices, memory, opto-isolators, input and output units, flags and shift registers. All of these work together to form a very intelligent device. The CPU (central processing unit) is where the main processing and thinking is done, this is often thought of as the brain of any intelligent device using a CPU. A PLC has to be able to store information such as programs. The programs are stored to a storage device such as a hard disk drive or solid state chip. The programs are written on an external source such as a computer and then transferred to the PLC storage device where the PLCs CPU can then run the programs. The memory in an intelligent device is often confused with the storage device but is not actually used to store information long term like the storage device is. A form of memory most commonly used is Random Access Memory (RAM), this is used in PLCs and computers as well as the vast majority of intelligent devices such as smart phones. The RAM is used as a temporary memory for programs being run, it allows the CPU to access random bits of memory as it needs it from where ever it is stored, it does this at a very fast rate. Regular storage devices such as hard disk drives cannot operate at this speed because of restrictions only allowing them to access memory in a uniform order and depending on where the information is stored will depend on how long the CPU will take to find it. An Opto-isolator is a protection device that transfers electrical signals between the input and output while protecting the internal circuity of the PLC. It protects against hight voltages and rapidly changing voltages that can occur in the system. Input and output ports are the ports that the input and output devices are connected to. Flags is a term given for a data type used in PLC systems, more specifically it is the term that relates to simple on/off or I/O fields. Shift registers are information from previous program cycles stored by the PLC and later used/reflected on for running other programs. Operational Characteristics Scanning is the process that the PLC goes through starting with the input and ending with the output. One scan cycle would go as follows: READ INPUT > EXECUTE PROGRAM > PROCESS MESSAGES > EXECUTE SELF DIAGNOSTICS > WRITE OUTPUTS Read Input = PLC keeps checking for input signal Execute Program = PLC prepares program but doesnt send it Process Program = PLC reads the program and passes it on Execute Self Diagnostics = PLC will check the program works (theory test) Write Output = PLC then signals relevant outputs This is just one full scan cycle that happens every 5 millionths of a second, this shows just how fast PLCs operate. Continuous updating is the CPU scanning the inputs in the specified order with a build in delay. The CPU scans each individual input before the program is determined. This allows the CPU to only process valid input readings but does have a negative effect on the time it takes to process when there are a lot of inputs each with the delay. Information and Communication Techniques There are three forms of signal used with PLCs; analog, Digital and Discrete. Analog signals are typically 0-10v DC or 4-20mA. These inputs are converted in to numerical values when they enter the PLC so they can be processed in the program. The PLC can also convert to an analog signal on the output if required (if needed by the output device). Digital signals are different from the analog signal as they are not dynamic, instead they are normally a simple on or off signal. This signal can be processed quicker than the analog. PLCs work with digital signals internally. This type of signal comes from more non mechanical input devices (see section 7 non mechanical digital sources). A discrete signal is sort of a mixture of the two above. It is a signal that can have a variable value or range that is normally voltage of current. It provides a on of signal like the digital signal but will work within set ranges. For example a PLC using 12 V DC I/O might be set that a value about 10 V DV means on and Values below 6 V DC means off. PLCs are capable of working on various numbering systems. These numbering systems can be; decimal, binary, octal, hexadecimal or BCD. The most common being decimal or binary. The decimal numbering system is the linear array of digits and the placing of each digit. Depending on the order or placement of the digit will depend on their actual value, this means that you could have the same number but have a different value for each. An example would be the number 3563, the first digit = 31000, the second digit = 5100, the third digit = 610 and the fourth digit = 31. This allows a wide range of numbers to be used as each digit can go to 0-9. It also allows for the next number to increase when the number before exceeds 9. The binary numbering system uses a different way of translating a value. Where as with decimal number each digit can range between 0 and 9, binary systems only have 0-1. There are set numerical values that are chosen by using the 1 or 0. 2^7=128 2^6=64 2^5=32 2^4=16 2^3=8 2^2=4 2^1=2 2^0=1 1 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 The table above is an example of an 8 bit code. 8 bits of information (1s and 0s). When a 1 is displayed, the value above is active so the number 10011100 would actually be 12^7 + 0x2^6 + 0x2^5 + 12^4 + 12^3 + 12^2 + 0x2^1 + 0x2^0 = 156. Or displayed as 128 + 0 + 0 + 16 + 8 + 4 + 0 + 0 = 156. Methods of Programming PLCs can be programmed in various different ways; Ladder/logic diagrams, statement lists, functions Ladder and logic diagrams are a very popular simple way or PLC programming. They are a sort of pictorial type of programming that allows the programmer to see exactly whats happening. From the ladder diagram you are able to use use simulation software to trail run your program to check that it is working correctly before uploading it to the PLC. Within the software preset parts such as switches and relays are easily added to the program. An example of the ladder diagram is shown on the next page followed by a screenshot of the simulation. This shows the how a ladder diagram would be made and linked to a working simulation on the computer software, it is slightly different to how the actual PLC program will be written but works as a simulation before writing the real program. The diagram is drawn up with what will be required in the circuit such as sensors, switches, air supply etc. The ladder diagram is then drawn and all the parts that have been used in the circuit are linked to the ladder. Coils are also added to achieve the required cycle. Ladder Diagram Simulation of Ladder Diagram When the designer is happy with the PLC simulation program, he/she will then use it to write the actual PLC program for transferring to the PLC. This software is slightly different but still produces a ladder style diagram where operations run left to right. The PLC programming software will have preset parts that are entered to the program. Once the program reflects the tested simulation program, it is transferred straight to the PLC itself. Word count : 2504 words
Sunday, July 21, 2019
Importance of Strategic Human Resource Management Introduction As globalization takes place, rapid development and increasingly competitive market have become the immediate challenges for organizations. Surrounded by such environment, organizations should create business strategies to survive the challenges and sustain the competitive advantage. Beside developing on new products, new processes and expanding business to larger market, the investment on the biggest potential that most organizations recognize, human resource, has received more and more attentions. Nowadays, the most valuable resource in a organization is suggested to be the human resource. Human capital, the knowledge, experience and skills that individuals possessed are pivotal for the successful performance of the federal governmentÃ¢â¬â¢s missions (J.L. Perry, 1993). Similarly, other types of organizations have no exception, also treasure the values that individuals bring to the companies. Thus, the management of human resource is closely related to the success of organization al performances. in fact, as argued by many management scholars, human resource management is currently an important, perhaps the most important factor that determines the effectiveness of organization (Devanna, Fombrun, and Tichy, 1984; Schuler,1990). Strategic human resource management (SHRM), as a term first given from the USA, is of more interest recently. It is defined as the pattern through planning human resource deployments and activities such to enable an organization to achieve its goals (J.L. Perry, 1993). SHRM creates a link between the overall strategic business objectives and the human resource strategy and implementation (E. N. Caliskan, 2010). Thus, it is important to understand that how the organization manages its human resource and link to its business strategies have a significant impact on the improved organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s performance. Impact of human resource management In order to explain the importance of SHRM to the success of organizational performance, the impact that human resource management has on the organizations should be examined first. There has been growing number of studies that indicated a positive relationship between human resource management and organizational performance (E.N. Caliskan, 2010). A research reported by Arthur in 1990 (M. Armstrong, 2006) gave data from 30 US strip mills used to assess how high-commitment strategy or a control strategy influenced labour efficiency and scrap rate. The results showed that firms with a high-commitment strategy was higher in both productivity and quality as comparing to those with a control strategy. In 1995, Huselid (M. Armstrong, 2006) did an analysis of the responses of 968 US firms regarding the use of high performance work practices, the development of synergies between them and alignment of these practices with the competitive strategy. The results showed that the impact of employe e motivation is significant on productivity, and the impact of employee skills, motivation and organizational structures is also significant on the financial performance. Later Patterson et al. in 1997 (M. Armstrong, 2006) did a research to examine the link between business performance and organization culture as well as the use of some human resource practices. The results showed that human resource practices gave explanations to significant variations in profitability and productivity. Two of the practices were particularly important: (1) the acquisition and development of employee skills (2) job design which includes flexibility, responsibility, variety and the use of formal teams. The workplace employee relations survey conducted in 1998 also suggested a strong association existed between HRM and employee attitudes as well as workplace performance through the sample survey of 2000 workplaces and views of 28000 employees (E.N. Caliskan, 2010). Purcell et al. in 2003 (M. Armstrong , 2006) did a longitudinal study of 12 companies to establish the impacts of people management on organizational performance. As indicated, the most successful companies all had a clear vision and a set of integrated values such as embedded, enduring, collective, measured and managed. It was clearly evidenced that positive attitudes towards HR policies and practices, levels of satisfaction, motivation and commitment influenced operational performance. From the research results, we can easily conclude that effective HR practices have positive impacts on the overall performance of organizations. For suitable HR policies and processes to be applied, the firmÃ¢â¬â¢s performance will be substantial and sustainable. Regardless of what type of industry the organization is aiming at, the ultimate strategic goal of the chief is to maximize wealth of the shareholders. Financial performance depends largely on operational performance. This can be accounted as a function of its people, process and technology. Effective combination of such function requires people in the organization to be competent enough with adequate knowledge, skill and abilities. Such requirement is closed linked to certain HRM practices such as hiring selection, training of staff, work environment and performance assessment. These practices may enhance the competence of employees, thus improve the performance of organizations. Impact of Strategic human resource management The strategic base of HR practices has a great impact on improved performance. Firstly, in the strategy of hiring employees, HRM tends to attract, develop and retain high-quality people. By matching employees to the strategic and operational needs of the company, can improve the working efficiency. In addition, the talent management also has effective measures. Winning Ã¢â¬Ëwar for talentÃ¢â¬â¢ is achieved by making sure that both present and future needs of talented and well-motivated people required by the organization are met. Baring in mind the most important strategy which is to create happiness within the workplace and make the organization a great place to work. This can inspire people to be more innovative and energetic in their work. As the employeesÃ¢â¬â¢ happiness increases, their performance also improves, thus enhance the overall organizational performance. The job design, as mentioned in the past research, plays an important role in productivity. It is necessary t o provide employees with stimulating and interesting work and give them autonomy and flexibility to complete their jobs. This can enhance job satisfaction of the employees, thus encourage higher performance and productivity (E.N. Caliskan, 2010). Training and initiating a learning culture within the organization can develop the level of competence of the workforce. Encouraging discretionary learning when individuals actively seek to acquire knowledge and skills that match with the objectives of the organizations. By creating a learning atmosphere in the workplace, employees would be more motivated and more competent to face the fast-paced and global challenges. From the case of Snowden, we noticed the importance of building cooperation trust among the employees. Adopting the strategy of increasing motivation, commitment and role engagement to encourage people to identify themselves with the core values of the organizations and to make them willingly contribute to achieve organizatio nal goals. Last but not least, for high-performance management, a positive performance culture should be built to deliver the desired values from the shareholders. For more contribution made, the people should be awarded, in order to encourage him to keep it up and also motivate other employees to devote themselves strive for better performance. As we discuss on how various HR strategies can be implemented to collaborate with business strategies to achieve higher performance of organizations, it is not hard to conclude that SHRM is the driver to improve organizational performance. Human resource, as a source of sustained competitive advantage, is worth being invested to increase the potential of an organization. So long as the people in the organizations are improved in both performance and attitude, the ultimate goal of the shareholder is approachable. The present linkage has given HR managers a clue on how to adopt various strategies onto HRM. These strategies do not only improve the human resource performance, most importantly, also directly affect the overall performance of the organization, thus, determine if or not the organization can achieve its goals. Case study of Google Inc. Backgroud In order to understand the importance of SHRM in practical situation, we introduce the unique and outstanding organization : Google inc. in the following part. Certain SHRM practices within Google would be discussed to show how actively it is focused on managing its people and how this helps Google to achieve its goals. Google inc., the biggest search engine known to the whole world has gained its success largely by the people, the googlers they have. This is a technological organization. Engineers are the main workforce of the organization. However, the HR department, or the POPS as themselves called, is the key factor which determines their past and present success, also perhaps the future as well. Under the lead of Bock, the POPS has helped Google to become the best employer in the US. It has been rated as the best place where people want to work for in the States. Let us see how Google succeeded over the years. Successful examples of SHRM Several years ago, there was a problem noticed by the POPS, that many female employees left the company. Although this IT based organization has mainly male employees, the role of female employees is as important as males. The problem was not about gender equality, but it has affected the bottom line. Regardless of gender, the market of the talents is very thin, fighting for the talented people determines the competence of Google with other organizations such as Apple, Facebook and so on. In addition, the departure of every employee will be inefficient because it will involve a costly and time-consuming recruiting process. Thus, the POPS investigated and researched until they realized it was a problem of happiness. At that time, the company offered an industry-standard maternity leave plan. As long as a female worker gave birth, she would have 12 weeks of paid time off, and only for those new parents in California offices. Those outside the state only got paid time off of 7 weeks. Af ter they figured out the problem, in 2007, Bock announced new policy. New mothers would get 5 months off at full pay and full benefits, also they are allowed to manage the time on their own wish. If she likes, the mother could return as part time after her birth, and then take the balance back when the baby grows older. In addition, Google offered 7 weeks new-parent leave to every worker around the world. It may sound overly generous that this investment outweighs the benefits it brings to the organization. However, this policy was actually a win for the company that after it was carried out, the departures of new mothers had dropped down quickly by 50%. Being compensated by the savings in recruitment costs, the new policy does not cost Google any more money (F. Manjoo, 2013). GoogleÃ¢â¬â¢s POPS does not only solve problems for new mothers. They concern about every little detail that the employees are involved. Surveys about the best way to manage a large firm were done a lot of times to the employees. The questions were such as do successful middle managers have certain skills in common- and can you teach those skills to unsuccessful managers? And say you want to give someone a rise-how should you do it in a way that maximizes his happiness? Should you give him a cash bonus? Stock? A raise? More time off? (F. Manjoo, 2013) Although some may argue that GoogleÃ¢â¬â¢s HR practices may not apply to all companies. Some of their findings such as how to improve interviews, will still be applicable to most of the firms. In the hiring process of Google, within the first few years, it required its candidates to endure many interviews. The interviewer was also played by all the staff currently in the company. The HR department thought this approach would help bo th current employees and prospective ones to be more competent and more capable. However, it slowed down the hiring process and became more and more ineffective on examining candidatesÃ¢â¬â¢ true values. Later, they realized the problem and studied about the optimal number of interview times. It was found that 4 times interviews will yield the most effective hiring process. After fourth one, the results begin to turn negative. Google was able to correct their HR practices to demonstrate the most strategic HRM. Besides these two major examples, Google POPS did way more. They investigated the way to increase employeesÃ¢â¬â¢ paying. Whether paying a bonus of more or giving rise to monthly salary with less amount makes no difference to the firm, but the latter one can largely increases the level of happiness of the employees, thus encourage them more to work their best for the company. Even for cafeterias, besides providing free food, drinks and snacks, the size of the table was also concerned. The tables are long, so that workers who do not know each other will have to sit together to interact. The social coherence will improve teamwork spirit. In such a competitive and globalized environment, teamwork is especially important as diversity and combination of different powerful minds can create miracles and successes. In addition, the size of the plates were also considered to change to smaller size, so that the employees would have more healthy portions of food. In such ways, the employees d o not just feel happy about the free services that they receive, they are also satisfied and motivated by the cares that the company shows to them. The learning atmosphere is also maintained well in Google. Googlers can enjoy free classes of dancing, training sessions and choose their interested projects. Such free and encouraging environment inspires the googlers to create more values to the company. It does not only improve the overall performance, but also brings benefits to the entire world as their internet business has already changed peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s life and will continue this mission. Discussion on GoogleÃ¢â¬â¢s SHRM practices GoogleÃ¢â¬â¢s POPS head Bock has revealed that the ultimate goal is to use GoogleÃ¢â¬â¢s experience to answer some important questions about workplace such as: are leaders born or made? Can individuals sustain high performance over their lifetimes? Google would eventually be able to figure out the answers and they believe that the unique luxury that they have as being a date-driven company with people who can do the math will assist them to achieve the goals. So far, Google has set many good examples for all other companies. Their successes in SHRM lead to greatly improved performance. Through the example of Google, other companies are able to see the importance of taking care of the human resource. The strategic management of people does not only enable better alignment of jobs, but also increases peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s happiness. As working professionals are happy about their jobs and workplaces, the development and civilization of the entire society will go to a higher level. The wor ld would not only be economic based, but also more utilitarian and more humanitarians. Conclusion The report has illustrated the importance of HRM to organizational performance. Then SHRM, as a link to connect HRM to business strategies to achieve final organizational objectives can improve overall performance of the organization. Through the example of Google inc., we see how actively Google focused on SHRM. They also gained success in SHRM and also become the most successful search engine in the history. Their ultimate goal is not merely helping Google to achieve business goals through SHRM, but also collecting experience for other organizations on how to improve their employeesÃ¢â¬â¢ happiness and welfare as well as achieve their business goals. Reference Devanna, M.A.,C. Fombrun, and N. Tichy. A Framework for Strategic Human Resource Management. Human Resource Management. New York: John Wiley. 1984. E. N. Caliskan. The Impact of Strategic Human Resource Management on Organizational Performance. Journal of Naval Science and Engineering, 2010, Vol. 6, No. 2, pp 100-116. F. Manjoo. The Happiness Machine, How Google became such a great place to work, 2013,retrieved from http://www.slate.com/articles/technology/technology/2013/01/google_people_operations_the_secrets_of_the_world_s_most_scientific_human.2.html J. L. Perry. Strategic Human Resource Management. Transforming Federal Civil Service. Fall 1993. p 59-71. M. Armstrong. Strategic Human Research Management: A Guide to Action. Kogan Page. London. p 73-74. Importance of Strategic Human Resource Management Importance of Strategic Human Resource Management The business that I have chosen to study as part of this assignment is TESCO. TESCO is a public limited company, which is very successful and renowned in all over the world. I am always interested about TESCO and do my shopping very regularly from there. So I chosen to do my study about this particular business and it will help me to get information quite effectively and efficiently than any other organisation or business. Definition: Human resource management is the organisational function which is focused on recruitment, management, and providing direction for the employees of an organization. Strategic human resource management is linking of human resources with objectives and strategic goal in order to develop business culture and performance with flexibly, innovative. In an organisation SHRM means involving the HR function and implementing companys strategies through recruiting, selecting, training and rewarding personnel. 1.1-Importance of Strategic Human Resource Management: Strategic human resource management is a part of human resource management. Rather than focusing on internal issues of HR, SHRM focus on addressing and solving problems what effect people management related issues in the long run globally. So the main importance of strategic human resources is to increase employee skills by focusing on business problems that happens outside of human resources. The actions that needed to be taken at first for a strategic human resource manager is to identify key HR areas ,where strategies will be implemented in the future to improve employees productivity, motivation and skill. Human Resource managers are facing with some issues such as performance management, employee participation, human resource flow, reward systems and high commitment work systems in the context of globalization. These are some of the major issues that HR management involved in SHRM that implemented in the first decade of the 21st century: Internationalization of market integration. Significant technological change. New concepts of general management. Cross-cultural factors The economic trend transferring from developed to developing countries in the world. SHRM also reflects some of the contemporary challenges faced by Human Resource Management. Such as aligning HR with core business strategy, demographic trends on employment and the labour market, integrating soft skills in HRD and finally Knowledge Management. 1.2-The Purpose of Strategic Human Resource Management: The purpose of SHRM is to stimulate interest in the field of Human Resources by inviting HR professionals to speak about different aspects of their job and other HR issues. SHRM was created to provide assistance for development of its members, to provide leadership opportunities, and establish and support standards of excellence in Human Resource Management. SHRM aims to provide a sense of direction in an often turbulent environment so that organizational and business needs can be translated into coherent and practical policies and programmes. SHRM should provide guidelines for successful action, and the ultimate test of the reality of strategic HRM is the extent to which it has stimulated such action. There is an overall corporate purpose and that the human resource dimensions of that purpose are evident. A process of developing strategy within the organization exists and is understood, and that there is explicit consideration of human resource dimensions. The organization at all levels establishes responsibility and accountability for human resource management. It includes the responsibility to identify and interact in the social, political, technological and economic environments in which the organization is and will be doing business. 1.3-Contribution of SHRM to the achievement of TESCOs objectives: SHRM is normally helps us to achieve knowledge about strategic goals in different ways. The main thing of using this strategic advance is maintain the level of the organization for the organizational goals. Different HR policies are providing some good replies that are very necessary for the organizational strategy. HRM task helps us to achieve corporate goals such as growth and development by recruiting, training and orientating, and put them in new job role. The growth plan of an organization requires staffs and recruitment is the only functions that make sure that employees got sufficient skill. The retention policy enable to differentiation through retaining best of the ability force. Retaining appropriately of the employees enables to provide quality works, customer pleasure, and higher proficiency. The strategic approaches boost its performance management of the whole organization. The training and development process enables employees to know that they have proper skills that are required to achieve the whole tasks. The training plans are structured to train the human resources for particular skills that will enable them to achieve the essential goals. So that the organization is benefited as in there appropriate utilization of financial resources available to accomplish the training and development process. This process also maintains the growth of the organization through career improvement of the staffs. Tesco is the UKs largest supermarket. It has more than 240000 employees, and is making constant profit over the last few years. During the last few years Tesco used participative management which helped the organization for its development. The organization tried to apply of competitive circumstances by developing the technique how they can relate with the customers. Tesco used constant improvement, customer relation, welfare management in combination with the HRM strategies to achieve this reputable place in the UK supermarket industry. It makes employees champions and makes them able to make decisions. It also enables to increase employee pleasure, motivation, work proficiency and make able to adopt in any change. Overall the development of the organizational employees is the most important strength of Tesco. It is mainly focus on proper accomplishment and utilization of HR strategies that help it to do well in the market. In Tesco Human Resource policies perform with marketing str ategies that is placed into the operation. The management practice and its participation helped Tesco to improve its employees and the whole company. These steps enable them to obtain appropriate performance through their participation and engagement. The strategic human resource practice enables to produce competencies that distinguish product and service. Task 2: In this part of my assignment I am going to explain about Marks and Spencer 2.1-Internal and external business factors that underpin human resource planning: At this time of year lots of companies are thinking a strategic plan for the coming period. There are some external and internal business factors that effecting Mark and Spencer business policy. Some of them are in below: Labor cost control Increase efficiency and productivity Employee development Business decline Business growth Business change Marks and Spencer is one of the leading companies in UK. Internal business factor like as business growth can strengthen human resource plan on Marks and Spencer. When the whole companys business is growing then definitely management make different human resource plan for the organizational success. It can include recruitment of new personnel or making the existed personnel more efficient through a better training. Similarly when Marks and Spencer business is going through a bad time Marks and Spencer management make a different HR plan, like as redundancies of staff or other HR related expenses. Sometimes for other changes in business its Marks and Spencer Company make some change on the HR planning. Control of labor cost is one of the important factors on Marks and Spencer business policy. Computing a labour cost percentage in addition to other used way of labour efficiency. Justifying labour productivity Maintaining a Productive Workforce Measuring Current Labour Productivity Managing Payroll Costs Dropping Labour-Related Costs Now a days IT is making a huge change in the field of industrial, agricultural and human resources of Marks and Spencer. In this present 21st century IT has been playing a very important role on human resource planning. Due to technological advancemans its been taking some changes on the basis of HR planning in Marks and Spencer. 2.2-Human resource requirements: Marks and Spencer is always looking for particular amount of skills from the employees of different department. Among of these department specific skills is generally required by the employers. Similarly experience and other qualifications also required from the employees. These skills are related with their ability. Depends on the making plan, organize, design, implementation. It also helps his goal-setting. Some of them are in below: Honesty, integrity and morality. Adaptability, Flexibility. Dedication and hard working. Dependability/Reliability/Responsibility. Loyalty. Positive Attitude/Motivation/Energy/Passion. Professionalism. Self-Confidence. Self-Motivated/Ability to Work with Little or No Supervision. Willingness to Learn. In the specific areas whoever is weak can develop these skills by better training, acquiring knowledge on specific field, professional development from the people who possess these skills. Internal factors e.g. (labour requirements, Skill requirements, Workforce profiles etc): Marks and Spencer consider skill requirement, labour requirement and workforce profile. HR planning ensures that Marks and Spencer has suitable access to talent and ensure future business success. Talent means the knowledge, skills and ability to assume some activities like as decision making. HR resource plan consider some iterative discipline. External factors e.g. demand for labour, Supply of labour: Sector Skills Councils, government departments, professional bodies or dedicated employer or trade associations are likely to produce specific labour market studies. Specialist recruitment agencies and local further and higher education establishments will have useful insights into the labour markets they serve. Government polices e.g. employment, Education, Training, Industrial, Regional: Government role and activity can have a good role on the basis of human resource requirements. If government keep a good look on how peoples can develop their skills and requirement. The answers definitely indicate a few things, one of them is education. This is the key factors for the development of a nation. So the developments of Marks and Spencer, even a countrys development mainly depend on educational development. Government need to analyse every single point and focus on that point after that must be taken step by step action to reach the success, the another key point is employment. Government should have developed the opportunity in the job market, need to think about how to make job market better. Must need to try the best how to create vacancies according to the peoples interest and skill. For this reason employees must be skilled, and to be a skilled worker he must be properly trained in both practically and theoretically. Government can support that directly or indirectl y. It can be regional basis or industrial basis. 2.3-Human resource planning: HR planning is the process by which a company can ensure that it got right personnel. To fulfil organisational requirement MS make some HR planning for the development of human resource these are: Recruitment Retention Employee development Re-skilling Up-skilling Succession planning Fulfil recruitment requirement: an organised process of recruitment can avoid the problem of unpredicted wastage, shortage, blockages in the promotion flow, redundancies and so on. Determining training needs: It is very important to have a planning training programme. And in the term of skills requirement these programmes are improving not only quantity but also in quality in Marks and Spencer. Management development: One of the main purposes of HR planning is management development. Because a well trained and experienced manager is very important for the effectiveness of Marks and Spencer Industry. This thing depends on accurate information for both present and future requirement. Setting Smart: To engage SMART objectives in Mark and Spencer is focus on all the SMART criteria to meet with every objective. The full abbreviation of SMART is Specific, Measurable, Achievable or Agreed, Realistic and Time phased. These criteria can help MS to achieve the goal on the basis of HR management. Specific: The goal must be specific. It can be done by drafting a goal statement. For an example MS aimed to make sure this year that they will make a specific amount of profit this year, to reach that goal they planned to make the HR department more skilled. That plan must be specific. Measurable: MS aim must be measurable so that the benchmark of the metrics will be used and it can be tricky. Strategic goals of MS are basically measured making earning or profit. So that it must be careful that it may find that employees use unethical behaviours to achieve the specific goal. Achievable: The goal must be achievable. If the mission is then it will be easier to fix that the goal is whether achievable or not. An awareness campaign or a meeting can ensure that how it can be achieved. Realistic: There is no point of making a goal that necessitates the resources which are unavailable. A tactful session might help to make that realistic. To help and find new alternative MS use empowering staff if its resources are considered. Time based: The goals must have deadline. If the deadline is not affix properly the whole SMART will be useless. Every year MS got an agenda on HR management, which means it plan, its agenda on the basis of a time limitation. That specific deadline allows it to create a benchmark to ensure the goals achievement is on the plan. Outcomes: The purposes of HR planning are to enable organizations to anticipate their future HRM needs and to identify practices that will help them to meet those needs. HR planning may be done on a short- or long-term basis. Its aim is to ensure that people will be available with the appropriate characteristics and skills when and where the organization needs them. The use of HR planning enables companies to gain control of their future by preparing for likely events. When failing to properly plan for their human resources, employers are forced to respond to events after they occur, rather than before; they become reactive, rather than proactive. When this outcome occurs, an organization may be unable to correctly anticipate an increase in its future demand for personnel. At best, such a company would be forced to recruit personnel at the last minute and may fail to find the best candidates. At worst, the company may become seriously understaffed. Resources required: In spite of of the size of the human resources department it is essential to have the necessary personnel in position to develop, apply and monitor a suitable written human resources plan. 2.4-how a human resource plan contributes to the meeting of organisational objectives: A comprehensive Human Resource plan plays a very important role on the achievement of organisational objectives. Human resource plan support some strategic objectives related with marketing, financial, technological and operational departments. HR strategy is aim to explain about the people element, what an organisation is expecting to achieve in medium to long term, which ensure that: The organisation has right people It got perfect mix of skills Employees present good attitudes and behaviours Staffs are improving in the proper way. Fundamental issues which are addressed by the organisation. It identified if employees are motivated, committed and operate successfully. In MS these fundamental issues are: Employees planning issues Employees skills and equity plans Motivation and fair treatment issues Keep level on the basis of payment, recruit and motivate people. A career development framework which is normally focusing on the development of organisation, organising the staffs with employability so they can adopt with regular changes in the employment pattern. HR plan is showing a careful planning of the people issues that make it quite easier for the achievement of the organisation. HR plan have major impact on the changes in the wider market environment which are: Changes in the overall market. Cultural changes that will effect on the future employment pattern. Changes in the legal framework Providing and implementing practical idea on HR planning and making it stronger an organisational performance can be developed such as focusing on good management practice. 3.1-Purpose of human resource management policies: Human resource management policies include different type of activities such as deciding about staffing need that M S Company got. To fulfill these requirements MS Company do recruiting and selecting employees then training for making them better skilled, ensuring their good performance, monitoring the performance issues. Activities also include managing the approach to employees benefits and compensation, employees personal policies and records. During the period of recruiting company must show the balance of equality on the basis of sex, culture, religion or cast. Employers should: Pay workers according to the agreement. The agreement will maintain some areas such as work period, amount of paid holidays etc. The employment contract is the important legal document between the employer and staff. Pay men and women equally for doing the equal values of work, should not be discriminate between men and woman. Make sure they fulfil the requirements of Minimum Wage Act 1998 and pay at least the national minimum wage to appropriate the employees Benefit and expenses: Benefits are forms of value, other than payment, that are provided to the employee in return for their contribution to the organization, that is, for doing their job. Some benefits, such as unemployment and workers compensation, are federally required. Employee benefits typically refers to retirement plans, health life insurance, life insurance, disability insurance, vacation, employee stock ownership plans, etc. Benefits are increasingly expensive for businesses to provide to employees, so the range and options of benefits are changing rapidly to include, for example, flexible benefit plans. Training and development All managers at Mark Spencer are making a career planning profile that helps them to think about next target. Then they can develop their career. Identifying staff, specific training such as technical skill and business competencies needs for the specific role. The profile highlighted what kind of training program Mark and Spencer need to take. There are two forms of training are: On the job training: while employees are on the work then this training form take place. Off the job training: when employees are away from the work then it take place. On-the-job training takes place while employees are carrying out an activity in their place of work. Involving a range of project and training can improve business competencies and technical skills. The purpose of the training is to make the enjoyable to their work, and make them feel that have all the skill that is needed for the role. Off-the-job training, as its names suggests, takes place away from the workplace. For example, within MS there is internet and staff finds required learning materials to develop their technical skills and business competencies. 3.2-Impact of regulatory requirements on human resource policies: Regulatory requirements: Employment legislation include different types of regulatory requirements which is related with business structure, pay, data protection, health and safety, discrimination, equality, employment right and responsibility, contractual terms and condition and data protection. Employment relation act 2004: This act is generally concerned with collective labour law and trade union rights. This is the reviewed one of Employment Relations Act 1999 that was announced on July 2002. The act 1999 was conducted with connecting of interested parties, after that it included a public consultation. Government reviewed that and provides a detailed analysis that is known as Employment Relations Act 2004. Equal Pay Acts 1970 and 1983 This act was came to force on 1975. Its intention was to remove discrimination between men and women in pay. This act allows someone to claim equal amount of payment for both of the gender. approximating work Work rate as equal under a job estimation scheme Work of Equal Value in terms of weight made under such headings as attempt, skill and decision-making Claims to be pursue on the basis of the Employment Tribunal system. Disability Discrimination Act 1995 This act came to force on 2nd of December 1996. This act works like as Sex Discrimination Act and Race relation act. It also put the duty on the employer to make a reasonable adjustment in the premises to the disable people. Disable means physical disable, visual or hearing disable, mental problem such as Multiple Sclerosis and Aid, learning problem. Data protection Act 1998: The Data Protection Act 1998 requires every data controller who is processing personal data to notify the Information Commissioner unless they are exempt. Failure to notify is a criminal offence. The Information Commissioner maintains a public register of data controllers. Each register entry includes the name and address of the data controller and a general description of the processing of personal data by a data controller. Individuals can consult the register to find out what processing of personal data is being carried out by a particular data controller. There is no requirement to notify manual records which come within the scope of the Data Protection Act 1998. However, it can be chosen to notify them voluntary to notify them voluntarily. If notification is needed, there are two ways to notify: By internet notification form can be completed on the internet, printing it and send the form by post with the notification fee or direct debit instruction By telephone it can be telephone the notification help line and a draft notification form will be sent to which is based on the information that is been asked to provide on the telephone. Further guidance and other publications can be accessed from the website of the Information Commissioner http://www.dataprotection.gov.uk/dpr/dpdoc.nsf Task 3: In this task of my assignment i am going to discuss about ACI Company Ltd Bangladesh. 4.1- Impact of organisational structure on the management of HR: Role of HR department on the development of ACI: On the development of ACI Company Ltd Bangladesh, HR department got a huge role. Organisational development of ACI is based on some personnel assessment and HR audit. Its also depending on the basis of how personnel departments are being observed and evaluated. On the viewpoint of a HR consultant here I am going to describe some of them: Recruiting, interviewing and hiring New employee related factors Performance assessment Wages or compensation issues Staff benefit issues HR plan and policies Job categorization Training and interviewing Decision-making skills 4.2- Impact of organisational culture on the management of HR: Organisational culture: organisational culture can be defined as thorough concept of knowledge, belief and thoughts of mind and customs in where peoples are expressing their organisational conditioning. Aci organisation have different shared belief and values which sometimes convert into policies and practice. Aci organisational culture has some impact on the HR management that are: Decision making that can centralised of decentralised Freedom of different level of staff and management Frankness on communication Different leadership styles that is conducted by managers Educational involve and intelligence of employees Attitude of team then if needed training and development. Attitude to change specially with the technology. Commitment on the quality and service. 4.3- How the effectiveness of HRM is being monitored: ACI Companys HRM effectiveness depends on some major components which are mentioned bellow and these components are being monitored by ACI regularly for the organizational development. These are: HRM strategy: Human resource strategy is indicating some objectives like as training and developing, motivation and control workers. ACI Company is one of the most successful organizations in Bangladesh, it achieving its success through business strategy and HRM strategy and company believe that the more successful it is likely to be in terms of achieving the organizational outcomes. So if the whole companys effectiveness is mostly depend on its HRM strategy. HRM operations There are lots of responsibility and functions required for running a business. Performance, productivity, each and every department must be monitored constantly and HR department is responsible for achieving these. These things ensure the overall success of ACI Company. Using human resource properly: Some people might think that HR department is not a most important factor in a company. It is totally a wrong concept. ACI Companys HR department basically focuses on hiring the people and which would build up the workforce of the company. If this department is not performing well then whole process of hiring and recruiting will be on the question for any company. So for the effectiveness of the ACI Company proper using of HR is very important. Efficiencies and inefficiencies: An organizational effectiveness mostly depends on having right people on the right post to fulfill organizational requirements on the appropriate time. Right people can only be obtained by measuring efficiencies. The more efficient the employee will, the more effective the company will be. On the other hand an inefficient employee is a great obstacle for the whole company. So making him efficient the companys development can be obtained. So monitor efficiencies and inefficiencies must be considered on the effectiveness of human resource management. Overall monitoring the above few section ACI Company is performing its organizational success. 4.4- Recommendation to improve the effectiveness of human resource management in ACI: To improve the effectiveness of human resource management in ACI Company, there must be a list of recommendation. The following few factors can be implemented for the improvements of its effectiveness. Benchmarking HR performance: Benchmarking provides an organization with a detail analysis of national and employees satisfaction. It also provides HR effectiveness based on in detail feedback form and the whole companys surveys. ACI Companys benchmarking reports let it to compare the organization with the current and future industry norms. Thats how the management can determine whether the present HR practices are fulfilling the companys need and the needs of employees. Employees attitude survey: Employee attitude survey provides information to improve efficiency and commitment on ACI industry. Finding out the root issues of attitude in the organization ACI Company must take the direct action to broaden its overall job satisfaction. Involving the information that was gathered from the survey will improve the productivity. Improving the attitude of the employees will lead to better cooperation and communication throughout the whole company. So employees attitude must be considered for the future improvement of the effectiveness of HRM in ACI Company. Employee retention: Employee retention is helping an organization to encourage employees to remain in the organization for a long time. Now a days so many companies are facing a lot of problem in employees retention. Hiring skilled and knowledgeable people for the job is very necessary for any company. But retention is more important than hiring. ACI Company is always looking for such a kind of talent employees. If an employee is not satisfied on his present job then he might try to find a better one, as a result it can be a huge lose for the company. So employee retention should be followed for the future development of the company.
Saturday, July 20, 2019
The world is filled with many different types of professional people that help maintain our health status. Registered nurses are one of these important professional people that take care of the sick and maintain health all around the world and in our community. Registered nurses also work to prevent disease , to educate the public about health issues , to enhance public health , and to help support ill patients both physically and mentally. In this essay I will describe and explain what is a registered nurse, education and certification, employment, and professional activities. Registered nurses are licensed by the state in which he or she practices after completing certain training and education. The three educational paths to registered nursing are bachelorÃ¢â¬â¢s degree, an associate degree, and a diploma from a approved nursing program. Registered nurses are used mostly everywhere because they are present when doctors cannot assist you immediately and they can prescribe medication. Registered nurses regardless of specialty or work setting, monitor all aspects of patient care including diet and physical activities, and provide advice and emotional support to patients and family members. And most of the places they work include family practices , adult practices , womenÃ¢â¬â¢s health , pediatrics , acute care and gerontology. Registered nurses work under pressure everyday to treat life conditions such as accidents , heart attacks and strokes. Registered nurses also take care for patients in critical condition , or illness , and they must be able to recognize life threatening problems quickly and assist a patient with care . Registered nurses may suffer from stresses and burnout caused by shift , night work ... ... S. (2011). Development Across the life span. New Jersey: Pearson Education. Haroun, J. M. (2011). INTRODUCTION TO HEALTH CARE SECOND EDITION. New York: Delmar Cengage Learning. Marieb, E. N. (2011). Human anatomy and Physiology seventh edition. San Francisco: Pearson Benjamin Cummings. Prabhupada, A. B. (2011). THE SCIENCE OF SELF REALIZATION. California: The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust International, Inc. UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR. (2011, March 5). Retrieved March 5, 2011, from BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS: www.bls.gov Whitney, E. (2011). UNDERSTANDING NUTRITION. Ohio: Cengage Learning. Education-portal. (2010). Private Universities in Florida. Retrieved from: http://education-portal.com/private_universities_in_florida.html eHow. (2010). Catholic Hospice, Inc. Retrieved from: http://www.ehow.com/about 5098909 florida-rn-license-requirements.html
Friday, July 19, 2019
Music as Clay In our study of Bach, we have seen how he was able to take traditional, sacred texts and write accompaniments for them that capture the meaning of those texts in a very unique way. Bach had the power to write music that was so expressive that it could actually make the listener feel what the text was saying. This power of Bach's music is often overlooked in our society, because the modern human culture it quick to judge the beauty of music. By doing this, we fail to hear the truths Bach wrote. The following is a close study of how Bach was able to combine text and harmonies in one specific movement of his Cantata No. 78 to express certain messages. Bach's tenor aria (movement 4) in Cantata No. 78 is a good example of how Bach uses the expressive power of text, harmonies, and instrumentation to speak to his audiences and really say things through his music. This way, he was able to make music not only more powerful, but more accessible. One way Bach uses Movement 4 to speak to the audience is through the form and tonal structure of the piece. Movement 4 is a binary aria with the text split evenly into a three-line A section and a three-line B section. The opening ritornello is in g minor, and the piece stays in g minor until the last cadence of the A section. The second ritornello is in Bb major followed by the B section, which moves from Bb major through many other keys and eventually ends up back in g minor. Then the final ritornello is also played in g minor. The form Bach has chosen seems, from the conventions mentioned by Crist, to be an irregular form for the text given. It is a very short text that could easily be repeated in the da capo form, but Bach must have chosen this form for another reason. Perhaps he was trying to accentuate more on the meaning of the words rather than portray its poetic sound. The actual meaning of the words do not really seem to fit well with a da capo form. The first three lines talk of how Jesus makes the heart light and the spirit free. Thus, a freer style makes sense. Also, the last three lines talk of how Jesus brings victory over the "Lord of Hell", so ending the song after that last line can somehow be paralleled to the victory.